Articles by GALE members

This page contains a partial list of articles published by GALE members. If there is an article that you would like to have added to this page, please contact us.

Beebe, Jacqueline D.
Gender-related Professional Activity and Research in Japan

Fukui, Ayano
Graduate School of Creativity and Culture
Aichi Shukutoku University
Breakaway: A Personal Essay
Producing Myself in English: A Personal Essay
Self, Language, Heart—the Textures of Identity: A Personal Essay
Undercover Observer: A Personal Essay

Harper, Michael Lee
Empowerment Through English, A Reflective Analysis
During 1999 and 2000 I had the unusual privilege to work in quite unique environment – in a domestic violence shelter in Tampa, Florida, in the U.S. Tampa is home to a large non-English-speaking community. Statistics for cases of domestic violence in the Hillsborough County area are also alarmingly high. A colleague of mine in the Masters program in Linguistics, Beth Ellen Holimon, wrote and applied for a federal government grant for her curriculum planning class. She and a partner researched the plight of abused women in Hillsborough County in order to create this grant. She was awarded a sum of money to head a one-year adult ESL program at the Spring of Tampa Bay Inc., created especially for these survivors of domestic violence. Holimon’s undergraduate degree is in Women’s Studies, and her MA is in Applied Linguistics. She convinced me, without trepidation, to come on board and help make the program successful. I was hired as an instructor, although I myself had had no prior domestic violence training. I was being recruited for my ESL teaching experience and ability. The year that followed was tumultuous, to say the least. Half way through the program, I became the project coordinator and had the first-time experience of interviewing ESL instructors and hiring my replacement. This article speaks to all ESL teachers regardless of exposure (or, hopefully, lack thereof) to domestic violence. Topics such as classroom logistics and contingency lesson plans and reworking entire curricula are discussed here. I will attempt to discuss the life of the grant, including its successes and weaknesses, and to decide if the grant should be maintained and, if so, how it should be revised for the future.

Haynes, Louise
Tango ‘Lessons’ and Decision-Making in Teaching
In the spring of 2003, Mayumi and I were on our way out of the station near our home when a young woman approached us with a flyer for a new dance school that had just opened a few minutes’ walk from the station. The school offered ballroom dancing, ballet stretching classes, and jazz dance for children. I mentioned to Mayumi that since junior high I had always wanted to learn to waltz and tango, just like Fred Astaire (my dream was to dance with, not like, Ginger Rogers). Mayumi’s eyes opened wide and a broad smile came over her face. She had always wanted to learn, too.

Haynes, Louise
Where the twain should meet: Public health policy and… the language classroom?
(From the Fall 2005 newsletter)

Japan’s fight against public health problems such as lung cancer, breast cancer, HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), tuberculosis, and so on, cannot be waged solely by government administrations. It must be a collective fight which involves all sectors of society, both business and private, the media as well as individual families. It begins with a comprehensive public health policy that provides for education, careful and attentive screening, and adherence to treatment programs. One vital step in the battle is raising awareness of these health problems.

As in most countries of the world, there is a wide variety of diseases that occur in Japan. Some of them are preventable to some extent (for example, lung cancer and heart disease), and others can be brought under control if detected in the early stages. Many of these diseases are well-known and there is awareness within the population about how to prevent them or how to seek testing and treatment. Some are less well-known with much less information available to the public through the media or other health education campaigns, for example, sexually transmitted infections, including HIV/AIDS. 

Jacobs, George M.
Asian Englishes — Ripple Effects: The Case Of Gender-Inclusive Language
The current study investigated whether the change toward more gender-inclusive English that is taking place in Inner Circle countries is also gaining acceptance for English usage in an Outer Circle country: Singapore. Data for the study came principally from a questionnaire completed by students at a Singapore junior college and from writing scripts of students at the same college. Results suggest that gender-inclusive English was viewed favourably by many students. Perhaps even more tellingly, gender-inclusive forms appeared in many students’ writing. Thus, it appears that a ripple effect has occurred, in which changes in Inner Circle countries and in their varieties of English have been a factor in changes in Outer Circle forms.

Joritz-Nakagawa, Jane
Crayon Outside the Lines

Joritz-Nakagawa, Jane
Gay identity in university EFL courses in Japan
In my university EFL courses, I have introduced or encouraged students to introduce the “topic” of homosexuality or bisexuality in a myriad of ways. Below I will give a few examples.  “Is something wrong? You look a little bit nervous.” “You know everything?! Well, I decided to tell him an important thing tonight. It is necessary for us to be true friends. He told me what shouldn’t be told to another person. Then, I decided it. Even if I would end up losing him, I must let him know the truth about me that no one knows. I…..” “You don’t have to tell me.” The man carries his coffee to his mouth as if he wished to stop his words. “I don’t mind. I don’t know much about you and probably I will never see you again. And I feel something special in you–I know it is strange to say this to a person I met just an hour ago or so, but I can relax with you somehow.” “Then, I can listen to you.” “Sure,” he nods. “I’m gay……” 

Joritz-Nakagawa, Jane
Honoring diverse voices: gender and the literary avant-garde

Joritz-Nakagawa, Jane
Why i love suede
Suede is more than a fabric, it’s the name of an exciting British pop/rock band. Not only is their music exciting, but so is their image. Or should I say “images”?  The cover art of Suede’s first album, entitled, simply, “Suede,” features part of a photograph by famed lesbian photographer Tee Corinne showing two androgynous women kissing. Apparently in the original photo the women are naked and one or both women is in a wheelchair, but the band was only given permission to use part of the photo, the part with the heads of the women.

Koshiga, Hiroyuki
Hiroyuki Koshiga is a 4th year student majoring in Kokusai Bunka (Intercultural studies) at Aichi University of Education, a national school of education in Aichi, Japan. The writings included herein are work he submitted to the teacher of his senior writing course:
 History of US feminism comparing various strands

Mathis, Mihoko Takahashi
Exploring Gender Issues in the Foreign Language Classroom: An Ethnographic Approach
Ethnocentricity can be one of the greatest barriers to L2 acquisition. Since culture and language are inseparable, students must come to certain understandings not only about the target language’s culture(s), but also of the non-universal nature of their own cultural values. In order to better understand the culture(s) associated with the target language (L2), students must first make certain realizations about their own hidden cultural values and assumptions.  This ethnographic study was designed to demonstrate how students can make both self-discoveries as well as open their minds to new points of view. However, the process of creating a sample for students to follow generated a great deal of data that was worthy of note in itself. This document will detail the results of the samples as well as give procedures for use with FL students. Suggested self-discovery and cultural awareness activities could include a variety of tasks. Details of two of the tasks, a scrapbook and a survey will be explained in detail.

Misaki, Keiko: M・ペ ルティエ(M. Pelletier)における個人主義と女性参政権の主張  〜第一波フランス・フェミニズムのなかの「過激分子

1988年、雑誌『サインズ(Signs)』 において、アメリカ人フェミズム史家であるK.Offenは、フランスのフェミニズムの歴史をふり返り、それが男女の差異を認め、家族や社会との関係にお ける役割にもとづいて女性の地位向上をはかる「関係主義的」 フェミニズムであったとし、アメリカ的な「個人主義的」フェミニズムとは対照的なこの「関係主義的」フェミニズムの「善き伝統」を現代フェミニズムが踏ま える必要があると論じた。  このようにフランス・フェミニズムの歴史をひとくくりに「関係主義」派・「差異派」として位置づけ評価することは、その当否を別にしても、 あたかもフェミニズムというものが個人主義的・「平等派」か、それとも関係主義的・「差異派」かのいずれかであったり、両方の要素を兼ね備え たものとしてありえたりするものだと考えることであり、それは結局、戦略と選択の「正しさ」を競うものにすぎなくなる。しかし、守るべきもの とされ、あるいは反対に否定すべきものとされる「差異」ないし関係役割自身が、歴史具体的な政治的脈絡のなかで構築される非本質的なものであ るという現代フェミニズムの視野に立つなら、フランス・フェミニズムの歴史のなかに正しい「善き伝統」を探るのではなく、例えば第三共和政下 で、なにが「平等」を阻む「差異」として呼び出され、それをめぐってフェミニストはなにを論じ、どう闘ったのかを丁寧に検討することこそ重要 であろう。

Ottman, Tina
Gendertalk: Masculinity in Transit
: A GALE Interview with Professor Michael Bamberg
The Gender Awareness in Language Education Special Interest Group held a Forum “Inquiring into Gender Identity and Education” at PAC3/JALT 2001, a joint event of Pan-Asian Conferences and the 27th Annual International Conference of the Japan Association of Language Teaching, in Kitakyushu, Japan. One of the key speakers was Michael Bamberg, professor of psychology at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. This dialogue is the result of over a year of email correspondence and reflections upon the work of an extraordinary researcher who is at the cutting edge of research into young adolescent male discourse and masculinities, through the interface of language and the positioning of the self in interactive discourse -research which may have important pointers amid the current concerns about male high-school ‘burnout’, an affective phenomenon that plays as a large a part in the language classroom as in any other educational environment.)

Ottman, Tina
Women’s Status, Men’s States: Feminist lawmaker Catharine MacKinnon on the new international human rights law paradigm
A report of the lecture Women’s Status, Men’s States, given by renowned feminist lawyer, activist and international relations scholar Catharine MacKinnon.MacKinnon spoke at the Centre of Excellence (CoE) Kyoto University symposium on 6th August 2007; with Okano Yayo, Ritsumeikan University, commentator; and Yokoyama Mika, Kyoto University, moderator. The report contains transcriptions from MacKinnon’s readings of her recent work, Are Women Human (2006). I have appended current well-known arguments for and against MacKinnon’s position: a critique from feminist academic Judith Butler, support from philosopher Martha Nussbaum, and a different perspective from feminist lawmaker Drucilla Cornell.

Rising Suns, Rising Daughters – Gender, Class and Power in Japan Book Release Notice (Liddle and Nakajima)
This book traces the changing position of Japanese women through significant moments of history and into the contemporary period. It repudiates the commonly held view of the submissive Japanese woman, and shows how women have been active agents in constructing new identities both in family and public life. The energy of the women’s liberation movement of the late twentieth century resonates with echoes of struggle and resistance from earlier times. The authors show how gender relations are crucially related to the construction of class and are used as a resource in the struggle for power between nations. The contemporary material is based on detailed interviews conducted over two decades with women who have challenged the stereotypes normally attached to Japanese women and attained positions of influence in professional life. The powerful and moving stories bring into focus the broader movements of history and culture within the experiences of individual women.

Simon-Maeda, Andrea
The Complex Construction of Professional Identities: Female EFL Educators in Japan Speak Out
This article reports on the life history narratives of nine female EFL teachers working in higher education in Japan. An interpretive qualitative analysis of the stories suggests that gender cannot be viewed as a free-floating attribute of individual subjectivities but rather as one of many components in an ever-evolving network of personal, social, and cultural circumstances. Consequently, this study does not provide a unitary description of the intersection of gender and language teaching and learning. The intention here is to offer a more complicated version of female teachers’ lives and in so doing challenge and expand prevalent TESOL education theories which do not fully address the confusions and transitions in teachers’ career trajectories. 

Sunderland, Jane
Jane Sunderland bibliography
List of articles by Jane Sunderland of Lancaster University

Tada, Noriko
Clothes Culture in Japan: hard body/soft body, distance/proximity and simulation/hyperreality
The term “hard body” evokes the sturdy body of heroes shown in Hollywood movies in the 1980s such as the Rambo series starring Sylvester Stallone. The image of the “hard body” was also used as the emblem for the hard-line policy of the fortieth U.S. President, Ronald Reagan (1981~1989). Such a straight image as the “hard body” would hardly have been adopted as a symbol of Japanese policy. However, Japanese politicians also need emblems, but instead of bodies, have harnessed clothing as symbols of national policy since the Meiji period, 1868~1912).  At that time, Western clothes were utilized as a vehicle for modernization and kimono, traditional Japanese clothes, as a vehicle for the restoration of traditional culture. 

Takahashi, Tokie
Domestic Violence in Japan
Domestic violence (DV) is increasingly emerging from obscurity to be a serious issue in Japan. There is growing recognition that a number of Japanese women are victims of DV. According to a survey on DV conducted among 4500 people in 1998 by the Prime Ministerfs Office, one third had experienced DV and 5 percent of the women who suffered from DV felt in danger of death. As a result of this increasing awareness of DV, in April 2001 the Domestic Violence Prevention Law was enacted in this country.

It is said that Japan’s education system has been highly egalitarian since the end of World War II. Many highly educated women have participated in the workforce and they seem to have become more financially independent than women in prewar Japan. Women marrying later, the declining birth-rate, the increasing divorce-rate and also number of unmarried couples living together show us that women’s lifestyles and choices are changing.

Although men have been educated under the newly introduced egalitarianism as well as women, it does not seem that they have changed as much as women have. Of course, DV is not a new problem: it has been around, concealed or condoned, for a long time, but it has only recently become a topic for discussion. The current attention on DV cases might reveal the incompatibility between changing lifestyles and attitudes of women  and menfscontinuing belief in their essential superiority in a still male-dominated Japanese society. Therefore, gender perspectives must be taken into account in looking for the causes of the problem of DV and where changes need to occur, to encourage for more understanding between the sexes. This essay examines and analyzes the issue of DV in Japan from the viewpoint of radical feminism.

Vandrick, Stephanie
Examining the New Backlash: Pitting Male Disadvantage against Female Disadvantage in Educational Settings
For the past three decades, there has been much research that demonstrates that girls and women in schools have been slighted, in many cases unconsciously. There have been efforts to counter these slights. Now some educators as well as non-educators claim that there has been over-compensation, and that in fact girls and young women are now treated better in educational settings than boys and young men. These critics list the problems of young males, and claim that a litany of male problems in society is actually worse than female problems. In this paper, I will give a brief overview of the arguments and research regarding females in school, list the arguments of the new critics who claim to speak on behalf of males, respond to those arguments, and then discuss how this controversy may play itself out in ESL settings.

Watanabe, Keiko
The “Double Surnames” Issue in Japan
In the present Japanese civil code, a “single surname” system is applied to married couples. Under this current law, a woman and a man can choose either surname of the two. The majority of marrying couples choose the husband’s surname. This practice has been criticized as discriminatory against women by many Japanese feminists, and the controversy is now widely known as the “double surnames for a married couple” issue.  Many attempts have been made to solve this problem, and even a draft allowing a husband and a wife to have different surnames was prepared and made into a bill, but the bill has not been passed yet…