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Venue: Toyo Gakuen University (Hongo Campus), Building 4/5
Location: Near Tokyo Dome (access / map)
1-26-3, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan
Phone: (+81) 3-3811-1696
GALE Forum: Equality Across Borders/Sat 4:30-6 Rm 4503 (Equality Across Borders)
1Kyoto Institute of Technology, Japan; 2Shonan Institute of Technology; 3Osaka University; 4Kobe City University of Foreign Studies
This forum will examine issues related to gender and identity both within Japan and globally. Eucharia Donnery will compare the experiences of female teachers and students in a computer sciences department at a Japanese university with other departments. She will also suggest ways in which universities can support minority identities. Parisa Mehran and Elisabeth Fernandes will explore the theme of debunking stereotypes of Middle Eastern Women. They will discuss their personal experiences in Iran and Pakistan and their collaboration in their English classrooms on projects to reflect on existing stereotypes and their impact on the identity of these women.
Female Representation in Japanese EFL Textbooks/Sun 11-11:25 Rm 4401
Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies, Kobe University, Japan
English textbooks play an important role in Japanese EFL contexts. This study is a quantitative comparative analysis of female representations in high school textbooks in Japan, with the aim of exploring gender representations therein. 22 textbooks published in the 1990s and in 2017 were analyzed in terms of the number of male and female characters and their social status. The significance of this study is that there have been few comparative historical studies in textbook analysis. The results demonstrate that there still remains a great disparity between male and female characters in EFL textbooks used in Japan.
Data Analysis in Qualitative Research on EFL Teachers/Sun 11:30-11:55 Rm 4401
Temple University, Japan
PhD students will have to make several decisions over the course of the dissertation project. I will use my own case study on female foreign language teachers to highlight suitable ways in which to analyze the qualitative data I will collect in my dissertation project. In this presentation, I will be describing some of the theory and practice associated with qualitative data analysis in order to think through the many possibilities available to researchers who work under the qualitative and mixed-methods paradigms.
Investigating Diversity: An Exploration Of Conference Attendance/Sun 1-1:25 Rm 4401
1Meijo University; 2Shirayuri University
Diversity and inclusion are on the JALT radar with the 2018 National Conference centred on the topics. This presentation will discuss the results of a survey that explores the reasons why people attend, or do not attend, JALT chapter meetings and conferences. This survey was undertaken in response to a finding that some membership demographics are highly underrepresented at JALT chapter meetings. (McCandie, 2017). Analysis will provide insight into the reasons and suggest ways JALT can adapt and develop to become a more diverse and inclusive association. The results have application to improving the diversity of conferences in general.
Sexual Harassment Issues and Language Education in Japan/Sun 1:30-1:55 Rm 4401
Ritsumeikan University, Japan
The recent “Me Too” campaign has raised awareness of sexual harassment as an insidious and prevalent social problem. A recent General Union survey shows that many language educators in Japan have been affected, and many dimensions of the issue are not fully understood. Research indicates that a culture of silence around sexual misconduct impoverishes learning experiences for students in toxic environments, and blights careers for language instructors. This presentation explores these issues, outlines various prevention policies, and reports on a pilot study with university students to raise awareness of the seriousness and the prevalence of sexual harassment.
Living in Liminality: LGBTQIA+ Identity in Japan/Sun 3:30-3:55 Rm 4401
1Kyoto Sangyo University, Japan; 2Utsunomiya University
This presentation discusses how certain cultural dimensions, combined with the importance of marriage and having children in order to have a place in society, have created a unique environment for the LGBTQIA+ community in Japan. Low visibility of LGBTQIA+ communities at university results in students having a liminal sense of belonging, existing simultaneously within and outside of society.
This presentation is informed by a series of in-depth interviews with LGBTQIA+ students in a university where the LGBTQIA+ community is largely invisible, as well as more informal contact with LGBTQIA+ students in a university working hard to make a more visible community.
Plenary Speaker, Momoko Nakamura (中村桃子): Gender Construction in Japanese Translation
This paper explores the inter-lingual process of gender construction by analyzing the employment of gendered styles in Japanese translation. In globalization, more studies are required to examine intersections of gender beyond language boundaries (Bloomaert 2010; Bucholtz & Hall 2004; Cameron 2000). Drawing on a set of linguistic features associated with femininity and masculinity in Japanese, I investigate how Japanese translators use the gendered features in translating the speech of non-Japanese women and men (Inoue 2003; Shibamoto Smith 2004). The data consists of the translated speech in English and Russian literary works, TV dramas, films and newspaper interview articles. Based on the methodology of discourse analysis, I examine the occurrences of feminine and masculine features in the wide range of media discourse (Nakamura 2013). The analysis shows: 1) Japanese translators overwhelmingly use feminine features in translating non-Japanese women’s speech, and 2) while they also employ masculine features in translating non-Japanese men’s speech, with respect to the casual, laid-back speech of non-Japanese men, they have created a specific Japanese style used only in the translation of the speech. The findings suggest: 1) the predominant use of feminine features for the speech of non-Japanese women works to naturalize Japanese femininity beyond linguistic and ethnic boundaries, and 2) the invention of the style for non-Japanese men serves to enregister the Japanese stereotype of non-Japanese casual masculinity, depending on which Japanese masculinity maintains its idealized status. In sum, this paper contributes to elucidating the inter-lingual intersections of gender construction.
Additional Session: Normalization and Simplification of Japanese Youth Style
This paper examines how a newly emerging youth speech style is normalized and simplified in media discourse (Buchotlz 2009; Kiesling 2004). Sociolinguistic styles not only indexically derive a variety of stances in interactions, but also can be bound to particular social groups (Agha 2007; Coupland 2007; Eckert 2008). This paper contributes to the growing interests in the relationship between stance, style, and identity by examining the Japanese youth style characterized by su, the shortened form of a polite copular desu, both in local interaction and in media. The data consists of thirty-minute video-recorded conversations of male college students, responses to a posting about su at an online blog of a nation-wide newspaper, and three TV commercials. The analyses of three sets of data show that: 1) the major function of su in conversation is to index the stance of polite solidarity (Hasegawa 2006), 2) 92% of 336 responses denies the politeness of su, claiming that su does not constitute the “correct” Japanese and that it is found only in the speech of “uneducated” men, and 3) the characters who speak with su in TV commercials are male athletes or impolite men who ignore traditional hierarchy. The findings suggest that the polite but intimate stance of su in local interactions is normalized by the blog respondents according to their norms of correct Japanese and, both respondents and media creators simplify the indexicality of su by associating it with specific groups of men.
Momoko Nakamura (中村桃子) is Professor of English at Kanto Gakuin University. Her recent publications include Gender, Language and Ideology: A Genealogy of Japanese Women’s Language (John Benjamins), Honyaku ga tsukuru Nihongo [Translation and Japanese Language] (Hakutakusha), Onna kotoba to Nihongo[Women’s Language and Japanese Language] (Iwanami shinsho), Sei to Nihongo [Sex and Japanese Language] (NHK Books), and Onna kotoba wa tsukurareru[Constructing Women’s Language] (Hituji shobo, Received the 27th Yamakawa Kikue Award).
Featured Speaker,Louise Haynes: Student Choice and Songs of Social Significance
“Songs of Social Significance” (which is also the name of her course) looks at a variety of songs ranging from the Spanish Civil War (and Cataluña today), Salvador Allende in Chile in the 1970s, the Civil Rights Movement in the US, and protest music of the Vietnam and Iraq wars. Participants will discuss ways to teach issues such as environmental destruction in Vietnam, LGBT movement, women’s rights, and nuclear issues in Japan in a respectful, inclusive manner.
Additional Presentation: Student Choice, Motivation, and Inclusion
This presentation focuses on how to raise social issues, why we should, and what doing so means for individual students who may otherwise feel alone in their experience or opinions. The speaker will discuss personal experiences in dealing with controversial topics in the EFL classroom and offer suggestions as to how to give students choice when raising issues, and what that might mean for improvement in overall language skills, improved critical thinking, and higher self-esteem.
Louise Haynes has had a long-term teaching and activist presence in Japan, and has done valuable work in diverse areas such as AIDS awareness and prevention, and the teaching of controversial topics. Her current research interests are content analysis of protest music during the Spanish Civil War and music worldwide that deals with social issues. She has an MScTESOL and an MBA from Anaheim University. She is currently a vice-director of the language program at Nagoya City University.
Event Speakers: Dr. Robert O’Mochain: Presentation: Sexual Harassment: From Cultures of Silence to Cultures of Empowerment
Dr. Fiona Creaser: Presentation: Springboard Women’s Work and Personal Development Program: One Woman’s Journey
Presentation 1: Sexual Harassment: From Cultures of Silence to Cultures of Empowerment
This presentation explores the issue of sexual harassment through the lens of culture, in particular the cultures of educational institutions. To what extent do educational cultures tolerate unacceptable behaviour, with a culture of impunity for perpetrators? To what extent are individuals aware of the seriousness of sexual harassment, and what steps have they taken to eliminate this prevalent social ill? The presentation also considers national, political, organizational, and military cultures in terms of the styles of masculinity which they promote and how this translates into toxic patterns of harassment. Finally, considerations are made of counter-arguments to some arguments of protagonists of the “Me Too” campaign, a recent far-reaching, multimedia, cultural phenomenon.
Dr. Robert O’Mochain is an Associate Professor of the College of International Relations in Ritsumeikan University. His doctoral research explored the implications of homophobia in the lives of teachers and students in Japan. More recently, he has explored the implications of sexual harassment in educational contexts and has applied a Masculinities Studies perspective to sexual harassment issues.
Presentation 2: Springboard Women’s Work and Personal Development Program: One Woman’s Journey
Dr. Fiona Creaser’s past research has been on harassment against women; however, two years ago she felt that although workplace policies had improved somewhat, there was still a gap between the reality of harassment and its effects on people. There was a clear need for safe working environments for people to speak freely about their experiences of harassment. Victims of harassment experienced anger, disappointment and isolation. Dr. Creaser thus worked on a project to culturally translate and introduce to Japan the Springboard Women’s Work and Personal Development programme, a programme which was developed in Durham University in the UK and dedicated to empower women to create their own networks of power and safety. This project has sponsored several women in Japan to become licensed trainers, and it is expected that this will result in pockets of support networks to spring up throughout Japan.
Dr. Fiona Creaser is an Associate Professor at the University of Kitakyushu, where she teaches gender issues. Her research interests include sexual harassment, workplace bullying, and women’s self-development and empowerment programmes.
This event is co-sponsored by Osaka JALT, Kyoto JALT, and SIETAR Kansai.
We’ll have a dinner party afterwards at a nearby restaurant. Please email Donna at email@example.com by April 19 to reserve a seat.
プレゼンテーション 1 ：セクシュアル・ハラスメント：
このプレゼンテーションでは、文化というレンズを通して、特に教育機関の文化におけるセクシュアル・ハラスメントの問題を取り上げます。加害者にはおとがめなしという文化の中で、教育現場では容認すべきでない行動をどの程度許容しているのでしょうか？ また、社会悪としてまん延するセクシュアル・ハラスメントの重大性はどの程度認識され、排除のためにどのような対策が講じられているでしょうか？ このプレゼンテーションでは、国家、政治、組織、軍隊といった男らしさが推奨される文化について取り上げ、その「男らしさ」がどのようにしてハラスメントという有害なパターンへと変わっていくかについても検討します。そして最後に、最近マルチメディアを通じて広範囲に展開される文化現象である「Me Too」キャンペーンの主唱者の主張に対する反論について考察します。
Dr. Fiona Creaser氏は、北九州市立大学の准教授で、ジェンダー問題について教えています。セクシュアル・ハラスメント、職場でのいじめ、女性の自己啓発およびエンパワーメントプログラムなどの研究に携わっています。
終了後に近くのレストランで夕食会を致します。参加ご希望の方は予約が必要となりますので firstname.lastname@example.org 宛てに4月19日（木）迄にご連絡下さい。