History of US feminism comparing various strands

Hiroyuki Koshiga

Aichi University of Education

 

Why do I study about history of US feminism?

@@@@@@@ In the Victorian age women were considered as subordinate to men. Therefore, women were tied down in doing various things by men or society. For example, women had to bring up children and do housework in a house. Some women were able to work as men but they could not get a chance to promote and earn as much money as men did. In addition, man-made-society imposed women to behave and think as men hope. Women had to be like angel waiting for their husbands in their house and modest, demure and chastity for men. Although women have won their rights to equalize in various fields, these sexual biases have not been removed from our society totally yet. Sexual roll have existed clearly yet. What interrupts the activity of feminist? What is lack for feminist? I want to study about history of US feminism and solve these questions as possible as I can. Moreover I want to compare various feminism and consider feminist doing in the future.

 

Various feminism or feminist definition.

@ Anarcha-Feminism

@@@@@ It considers existent structures of power have constructed oppression of sexism. So to remove oppression of sexism is to abolish various oppression and power that have been instituted. For example, government, hierarchy and leaders.

 

@ Cultural-feminism@

@@@@@ It is the feminism that tries to develop woman culture that is inherent in women and counter culture. It affirms biological difference and not consider oppression of women to be from sexual discrimination but tends to think that a biological difference is beautified and universal. In comparison with men, it think that women hate violence essentially and women are cooperative and willing to take care of someone.

 

@ Black-feminism

@@@@@ Although other feminisms try to meet various requirements of women, they have been regarded as activities of middle-class white women frequently. So feminisms have ignored black women and other colored. Black women have had double oppressions that include racial discrimination and sexual discrimination. Most of them have considered racial discrimination to be superior solution to sexual discrimination. All of women have experienced common sexual oppression but white women have not experienced racial and hierarchic oppression. So black women think that only solution of sexual discrimination is meaningless and try to fight against every oppression.

 

@ Ecological feminism, eco feminism

@@@@@ It is unification to feminism and ecology. In society where androcentric sense of value destroys nature, women are look down on because women are like nature physiologically, psychologically and emblematically. However, rehabilitation of such femininity is able to help the present society that is in danger ecologically.

 

@@Lesbian-feminism

@@@@@ It criticizes heterosexuality that encourages phallocracy. It also protests to practice any sex with men as well as system of heterosexuality. For heterosexuality is regarded as the paradigm that oppresses women. Lesbian-feminists think that every woman is lesbian but they are forced to do compulsory heterosexuality and unaware of their being lesbian. They encourage every woman to stop loving men and to be celibacy.

 

@ Marxist-feminism

@@@@@ Reproduction labour (housework, childcare, reproduction and so on) account for most part in woman labour. Marxist-feminists try to disclose that capitalism has profited by imposing women on nude hard labour under justice of sex-roles labour. Therefore, they say that they should fight against capitalism. In addition, while women advance to production region, they blame double shift (reproduction and production labour) under strong connection between patriarchy and capitalism.

 

@ Radical-feminism

@@@@@ Radical-feminists insisted that gPersonal is Political, Theh and inspected that sex and reproduction had been controlled and socialized by marriage, compulsory heterosexuality and motherhood.

 

@ Male feminists

@@@@@ They think in general that feminism is a human right and they do not change dramatically existing society and only propagate equal opportunities to women.

 

 

@ Separatism

@@@@@ It is practice to make community consisted of only women separating from men. Women have choice separatism in person to escape from control of men.

 

Attack against concept of gender free

@@@@@@@ In Japan, some has objected the campaign that promotes gender free recently. For example, masculine and feminine are emphasized in educational fields. As a result, it is said that sex-role should be imposed on. The tendency of reverse must narrow women rights to choice or live freely. Why gender free is attacked against? The answer is the remark of a government official. He said that gmen defend our country. That masculine and feminine disappear is a serious problem. If men in our country lost masculine, this country is destroyed.h This remark promotes a war and encourages phallocracy. Menfs desire of distraction must be relieved by feminist. Otherwise, war will break out all over the world and ecosystem will collapse as ecological-feminist said. So feminists must not conflict each other and I think that feminists should combine together against campaign to restore traditional sex-roll.

 

References

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